Different Packages of Transistors
Today, I'm going to give you an overview of the Different Packages of Transistors. This blog is the continuous blog of the series of Transistors so if you wish to read about any other transistors then you may click HERE. In this blog, we will be discussing the Transistor outline (TO) SERIES, TO-92 Package, TO-18 Package, TO-220 package, TO-3 Package, Small Outline Transistor (SOT), SOT-23 Package, SOT89-3 Package and so on.


Transistor, What is inside a transistor?,  Standards for transistor packages are, "TO" (transistor outline); other standards sometimes use "SOT" (small-outline transistor) for surface mount devices.

Transistor packages are the styles of the case used to house transistor components, providing the connection between the internal and the external circuit, as well as protection for the delicate internal part and perhaps capacity for removal of heat via heatsinks to avoid thermal damage.


Standards for transistor packages are, "TO" (transistor outline); other standards sometimes use "SOT" (small-outline transistor) for surface mount devices. 

 TO SOT
TO, transistor outline, transistor package, TO package, TO-92
SOT, small-outline transistor, surface mount devices, surface mount transistors, sot23, sot223, sot523, sot89

 

The transistor packages are varied according to their applications, low power transistor packages will be different from the packaging of the high power transistor.

Low power transistor packaging is made of plastic material having a characteristic surface that is flat, while those made of metal have a protrusion (tag) on the plate underneath.

the metal tag is useful for attaching a heat sink or appliance exhaust heat dissipation that occurs during the process. Heat sink, Different packages of transistor


Transistors with a higher power, are usually made of plastic packaging, metal, or a mixture of plastic and metal. Metals in the body transistor generally signify a collector terminal and specialized in high power transistors, the metal tag is useful for attaching a heat sink or appliance exhaust heat dissipation that occurs during the process.

 

"TO" SERIES

The transistor outline (TO) package family consists of many types of packaging solutions for transistors and similar discrete devices as well as simple IC's with low pin counts. The structures of TO packages varies widely, from metal can enclosures to low-cost plastic-molded package bodies 

 

Transistors are available in various packages such as TO-3, TO-5, TO-8, TO-18, TO-36, TO-39, TO-46, TO-52, TO-66, TO-72, TO-92, TO-126, TO-202, TO-218, TO-220, TO-226, TO-254, TO-257, TO-258, TO-259, TO-264, and TO-267.  "TO" SERIES

Transistors are available in various packages such as TO-3, TO-5, TO-8, TO-18, TO-36, TO-39, TO-46, TO-52, TO-66, TO-72, TO-92, TO-126, TO-202, TO-218, TO-220, TO-226, TO-254, TO-257, TO-258, TO-259, TO-264, and TO-267. 

 

TO-92 Package

TO, transistor outline, transistor package, TO package, TO-92

The TO-92 is a small type of plastic-molded package. It has a flat front face that is marked with the device name or number, while its back is semi-circular in shape. Since it is most often used in transistor packaging, the TO-92 usually has three leads, all of which come out from the bottom of the package. 


The main advantage of the TO-92 package is its small size. Unfortunately, this  small size means that it is not designed to dissipate much heat and can not be used on devices that have high power consumption

Properties of a Typical TO-92

Plastic Body Size

(H x W)

Body Thickness

Lead

Width

Lead

Thickness

Lead Length

4.58 mm x 4.58 mm

3.86 mm

0.46 mm

0.38 mm

14.47 mm

 

Common Transistors in a TO-92 package:
BC547
general-purpose NPN transistor
BC548
, general-purpose NPN transistor
BC558, general-purpose PNP transistor
2N3904, general-purpose NPN transistor
2N3906, general purpose PNP transistor
2N7000, N-channel FET
BS170, N-channel FET
PN2222A, a "plastic" version of the original 2N2222 

J3Y Transistor  S8050 NPN SOT-23 SMD 0.5A 40V Transistor

 

TO-18 Package

TO, transistor outline, transistor package, TO package, TO-18


The TO-18 is a type of 'metal can' (also known as 'metal header') package for semiconductor devices. It is sealed hermetically to protect the device from environmental factors such as moisture and contaminants. The TO-18 looks like a TO-46 but it is slightly bigger than the latter because of its taller cap.

TO, transistor outline, transistor package, TO package, TO-18, To-18 pinout


Terminal identification; Pin 1 Emitter, Pin 2 Base, Pin 3 Collector. The Collector is internally connected to the case.

Properties of a Typical 3-lead TO-18 Package

Base

Diameter

Cap

Diameter

Cap

Height

Min. Lead

Length

Max. Lead

Pitch

5.5 mm

4.7 mm

4.8 mm

12.7 mm

2.97 mm

   

Common transistors in a TO-18 package:

2N2222A or 2N3960 NPN Transistor, a 2N2646 UJT or 2N4091, 2N4092, 2N4093 FETs.
NPN Low-Power Transistor, 2N2484
PNP Switching Transistor, 2N4029, 2N4209
P-Channel Field Effect Transistor, 2N5114, 2N5115, 2N5116
N-Channel Field Effect Transistor, 2N7002
Photo-transistors [lensed TO-18 package], CLT130, CLT131, CLT132 and CLT133
N-Channel FET; 2N4856, 2N4857, 2N4858, 2N4859, 2N4860, 2N4861
N-Channel FET; 2N4091, 2N4092, 2N4093
 



TO-220 package

 
TO, transistor outline, transistor package, TO package, TO-220
TO, transistor outline, transistor package, TO package, TO-220

The metal tab at the back of the TO-220 serves as a heat sink itself, but it has a hole so that it can be screwed onto a larger heat sink if higher power handling capability is required. 

 

A typical TO-220 package can have 2 to 7 leads, although TO-220's with 3 leads are most commonly encountered because this package is primarily used on three-terminal devices such as transistors. The typical lead pitch (distance between leads) of a TO-220 package is 2.54 mm.

 Properties of a Typical TO-220

Body Size (HxW)

 excl. Metal Tab

Body Size (HxW)incl. Metal Tab

Body Thickness

Metal Tab Thickness

Lead Length

9.2 mm x 9.9 mm

15.7 mm x 9.9 mm

4.5 mm

1.3 mm

13.1 mm

 

Common transistors that use the TO-220 package

The TO-220 case is found on semiconductor devices handling less than 100 amperes and operating at less than a few hundred volts. These devices operate at DC or relatively low (audio) frequencies so, the TO-220 package is not intended for devices operating at radio frequencies. In addition to bipolar, bipolar Darlington, and power MOSFET transistors.


  • TIP31C NPN Bipolar Transistor
  • IRFP460 N-Channel Power MOSFET
  • IRFZ14 N Channel Power MOSFET
  • STP40NF10L N Channel Power MOSFET
  • P55NF06 N-Channel Power MOSFET
  • IRFZ44N N-Channel Power MOSFET
  • IRF1405 N-Channel Power MOSFET
  • IRF4905 P-Channel Power MOSFET
  • IRF5305 P-Channel Power MOSFET
  • IRF9520 P-Channel Power MOSFET
  • IRF9530 P-Channel Power MOSFET
  • IRF5210 P Channel Power MOSFET
  • IRF9533 P Channel Power MOSFET

 

 

TO-3 Package

TO, transistor outline, transistor package, TO package, TO-3, NPN Power Transistor 2N3055, 2N5685, 2N5686, 2N6306, 2N6308, 2N6249, 2N6250, 2N6251, 2N6274, 2N6277, 2N6032, 2N6033, 2N6676, 2N6678, 2N6546 NPN High-Power Transistor 2N3715, 2N3716, 2N3771, 2N3772, 2N5038, 2N5039, 2N5302, 2N5303 NPN Power Darlington Transistor 2N6058, 2N6059, 2N7569, 2N7570, and 2N7571 PNP High-Power Transistor 2N4399, 2N5745 PNP Power Transistor 2N5683, 2N5684, 2N6378 and 2N6379, BU208 PNP Power Darlington Transistor 2N6286, 2N6287, 2N6648, 2N6649, 2N6650


The TO-3 or TO3 is a type of 'metal can' package that is capable of high-power dissipation commonly used by power transistors, SCR's and other high-power semiconductor devices.

The TO-3 is made entirely of metal, with the microchip mounted on its metal can base and then covered with a metal cap. TO-3 packages are designed to accommodate large heat sinks to increase their power handling capability. 

A typical power transistor packaged in a TO-3 package has two protruding terminals (one for the base and the other for the emitter), with the collector using the TO-3's body itself as its terminal for direct thermal conduction to the heat sink.

TO-3 Package, TO-3, TO-3 Pinout



Advantages of the TO-3 package include

  • Excellent power handling capability,
  • High durability,
  • Ease of mounting
  • Hermetic sealing that protects the chip from environmental factors.

Properties of a Typical TO-3

Base Size

(Length x Width x Thickness)

Cap

Diameter

Cap

Height

Lead Length

Lead Pitch

39.3 mm x 26.6 mm x 1.7 mm

22.2 mm

5.7 mm

11.7 mm

10.9 mm

 

Common transistors that use the TO-3 package

TO-3 Transistor Types [3-Pin];
NPN Power Transistor 2N3055, 2N5685, 2N5686, 2N6306, 2N6308, 2N6249, 2N6250, 2N6251, 2N6274, 2N6277, 2N6032, 2N6033, 2N6676, 2N6678, 2N6546, KD503

NPN High-Power Transistor 2N3715, 2N3716, 2N3771, 2N3772, 2N5038, 2N5039, 2N5302, 2N5303
NPN Power Darlington Transistor 2N6058, 2N6059, 2N7569, 2N7570, and 2N7571
PNP High-Power Transistor 2N4399, 2N5745, 2N2955
PNP Power Transistor 2N5683, 2N5684, 2N6378 and 2N6379, BU208
PNP Power Darlington Transistor 2N6286, 2N6287, 2N6648, 2N6649, 2N6650

 

 

 

Small Outline Transistor (SOT)

SOT-523 SOT-323 SOT-23
 
Small Outline Transistor (SOT), SOT-523
Small Outline Transistor (SOT), SOT323
Small Outline Transistor (SOT), SOT-23


Small Outline Transistor (SOT) packages are very small, surface-mount plastic-molded packages with leads on their two long sides. Due to their low profile, SOT's are widely used in consumer electronics. 

 

 

SOT-23 Package

SOT-23 Package, SOT-23, BFR540, BFR106, BAP70-05, BFR505, BFT25, BF512, BF513, BF510, BF511, BBY40, BFR94A, BAP65-05, PBR941B, BAT18, PBR941, BAP50-05, BF556C, BAP50-04, BF556B, BFR30, BFR31, PMBFJ113, PMBFJ111, PMBFJ112, PMBFJ310, BB201, BAP64-06, BAP64-05, BFR93AR, BAP64-04, BFS17, BB207, BFR93A, BF556A, PMBFJ110, PBR951, BF545C, KTY82, BAP1321-04, BF545B, BFR520, PMBFJ308, PMBFJ309, BSR57, PMBFJ108, PMBFJ109, BSR12, BSR56, BFS17A, BSR58, BFQ67, BFT46, BFU530A, BFU550A, BFR92A, BF545A, BF861C, BFR92, BF861A, BF861B, PMBF4391, PMBF4392, BFT93, BFT92, PMBF4393, BFU520A, BFT25A

The SOT-23 or TO-236AB package is a 3-terminal plastic surface mount component.
A similar package style is the TO-236AA SMD Transistor

SOT-23 is used for small-signal transistors and measures 2.9 mm x 2.4 mm x 1.1 mm.
Because the SOT-23 is a Surface Mount Device [SMD] heat transfer will also be conducted via the component leads.

The text above indicates that this package is used by either transistors or FETs but almost any two or three-terminal semiconductor could use this package: Thyristors, IGBTs, and so on. Because of the package size, the SOT-23 is a low current device 

Common transistors that use the SOT-23 package

BC857, S8550BC817BC847BSI2302, BFR540, BFR106, BAP70-05, BFR505, BFT25, BF512, BF513, BF510, BF511, BBY40, BFR94A, BAP65-05, PBR941B, BAT18, PBR941, BAP50-05, BF556C, BAP50-04, BF556B, BFR30, BFR31, PMBFJ113, PMBFJ111, PMBFJ112, PMBFJ310, BB201, BAP64-06, BAP64-05, BFR93AR, BAP64-04, BFS17, BB207, BFR93A, BF556A, PMBFJ110, PBR951, BF545C, KTY82, BAP1321-04, BF545B, BFR520, PMBFJ308, PMBFJ309, BSR57, PMBFJ108, PMBFJ109, BSR12, BSR56, BFS17A, BSR58, BFQ67, BFT46, BFU530A, BFU550A, BFR92A, BF545A, BF861C, BFR92, BF861A, BF861B, PMBF4391, PMBF4392, BFT93, BFT92, PMBF4393, BFU520A, BFT25A


 

SOT89-3 Package

SOT, small-outline transistor, surface mount devices, surface mount transistors, sot23, sot223, sot523, sot-89-3,  BFU580Q, BFU590Q, BGA7024, BGA6289, BGA6489, BGA7027, BGA6589, BGA3018, BGA3015, BFQ18A, BGA3012, BFQ19, BFQ149, BFQ540, BFQ591 BCX53, BCX53-10T, PBHV9540X, 2SAR375P5, BCX52T, BCX51T, 2SB1189, ZX5 T3Z, 2DA1213YQ, DXT751Q, BC869, FCX591AQ, 2SB1561, 2SAR553P5, BSR33


The SOT89-3 electrically only has three leads. The wide lead (tab) is physically part of the middle lead on the other side of the package. 

Surface-mounted package; 3 leads; 1.5 mm pitch; 4.5 mm x 2.5 mm x 1.5 mm body

Common transistors that use the SOT89-3 package

BFU580Q, BFU590Q, BGA7024, BGA6289, BGA6489, BGA7027, BGA6589, BGA3018, BGA3015, BFQ18A, BGA3012, BFQ19, BFQ149, BFQ540, BFQ591
BCX53, BCX53-10T, PBHV9540X, 2SAR375P5, BCX52T, BCX51T, 2SB1189, ZX5 T3Z, 2DA1213YQ, DXT751Q, BC869, FCX591AQ, 2SB1561, 2SAR553P5, BSR33

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